Table of Contents

    • 114

    • Material Tracking System From Billets to Wire Rods

      Process automation connects the existing machines on production lines with the tracking system that collects, processes and stores all data of each working step, in order to create detailed information for each piece. On each bundle, a full automatic robotic cell, implemented by a 3D camera, identifies the best point to clip, and attaches a customized label with a QR code with the immediate verification of readability for a complete
      tracking system.


    • 120

    • Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) Methodologies for Tube and Pipe Mills

      There are many factors required in selecting the ideal non-destructive testing (NDT) inspection system for a tube and pipe mill. Also, NDT systems need to be selected based on mill operator’s level of expertise, as well as the level of which the factory’s quality management wish to utilize the technology. This paper will summarize all NDT methodologies used on tube and pipe mills and will define the deciding factors.


    • 126

    • Reinforcing Bar: Hardening Mechanisms and Performance in Use

      The alternatives for the production of concrete reinforcing bars are analyzed: solid solution hardening (“natural hardness”); quench hardening and self-tempering; and grain refining/precipitation hardening (microalloying with niobium, vanadium or titanium) and their influence on the performance of the rebar, regarding corrosion resistance, fire and earthquakes.


    • 132

    • Pre-Heating Methods Comparison for a Mannesmann Rolling Mandrel

      In order to improve the continuous rolling process at Vallourec Tubos do Brasil, the implementation of a mandrel pre-heating method for the first rolling cycles is being studied. To do so, a methodology was developed to analyze the problem: a mathematical model to describe the mandrel thermal profile along the production line and calculate the necessary energy to preheat the tool. Based on these results, this work aims to compare different methods and machinery to pre-heat the mandrel and point out the best option, considering their energy efficiency, implementation and operational costs.


    • 138

    • Improving Steel Cleanliness by Optimizing Inclusion Rinse Time at the LMS

      A study was conducted at Commercial Metals Company – Texas to determine the effect of argon stirring time at the ladle metallurgy station on the number, type, size and distribution of inclusions in special bar quality rounds. The goal was to optimize stirring time in order to ensure the most superior final product in terms of inclusion content and mechanical properties.


    • 148

    • Development of an Image Analysis Technique for Quantitative Evaluation of Centerline Segregation in As-Cast Products

      Currently, in the steel industry, there is no reliable and quantitative method for the evaluation of centerline segregation. The general approach is a visual assessment of centerline segregation based on a comparison of macroetched slabs to Mannesmann charts. A novel and quantitative technique for the evaluation of centerline segregation has been developed. The technique is sophisticated, user-friendly, rapid, adaptable to the production environment and completely independent of the evaluator.