Table of Contents

    • 56

    • Recent BOF Practice and Automation Improvement at Burns Harbor

      A number of BOF practice improvements have been realized at ArcelorMittal Burns Harbor, including automation of stages during a heat cycle, elimination of bomb sensors at the end of blow, lance design and profile changes, and dynamic endpoint control. These changes have resulted in shorter tap-to-tap time, sensor cost saving, more consistent turndown performance, significant reduction in reblow rate, improved furnace yield, reduced flux consumption and other benefits. Benefits and challenges of these changes are discussed in this paper.


    • 64

    • Installation of the SMS Converter Exchange System at Rio Tinto Fer et Titane, Canada

      This paper describes the unique features of the replaceable K-OBM converter system installed at Rio Tinto Fer et Titane in 2014. The system uses tendon bundles at four corners to provide vertical support for the vessel while providing the flexibility to allow for the thermal expansion of the vessel in operation. The tendons are designed in such a way that they can be unclamped and the vessel can be lowered and removed by a specially designed exchange car. Outage time for refractory relining is thereby avoided.


    • 72

    • Alternative Method for Obtaining an In-Blow Carbon Measurement in the BOF

      Obtaining a reliable and accurate in-blow carbon and steel bath temperature measurement during the blow in a basic oxygen furnace (BOF) is critical in order to dynamically control the endpoint of the oxidation process in the BOF. New developments in drop-in sensor technology have allowed for an alternative method of obtaining reliable and accurate in-blow carbon and steel bath temperature measurements with benefits of: lower cycle time between measurements, decreased capital equipment costs and decreased equipment maintenance requirements.


    • 80

    • Removal of Phosphorus – Technology Alternatives

      Steel producers have developed specific technologies to eliminate phosphorus prior to and during steelmaking. These technologies reduce phosphorus and increase the cost of making steel. State-of-the-art dephosphorization technologies are described and operating costs compared for each of the established technologies. Costs are discussed in terms of price penalties for high-P iron ore and selling premiums for low-P steel. From this, strategies to control P in a cost-effective manner
      are described.



    • 100

    • Influence of Silicon and Manganese on the Peritectic Range for Steel Alloys

      Silicon is a powerful ferrite former and hence is expected to constrict the hypoperitectic range. Extensive differential scanning calorimetry measurement on Fe-C-Si-Mn samples and commercial steel grades proved a less significant impact of silicon on carbon steel grades, but a strong interaction with manganese-alloyed steel grades during solidification. Plant observations on a slab casting machine confirm these results. These new findings are currently used to assess thermodynamic databases and will allow more precise solidification calculations in
      the future.