Iron & Steel Technology

April Issue Now Online

April Issue Now Online

Feature: Oxygen Steelmaking. Special features include: The 2013 John F. Elliott Lectureship, 2014 Basic Oxygen Furnace Roundup and more.

Table of Contents

    • 131

    • Introducing the BOF Blowing Process Model — A Tool for Practice Improvement

      A model focused on the non-equilibrium nature of reactions during a heat has been developed to simulate chemical reactions between, and composition and temperature changes of, slag and metal in a basic oxygen furnace. It provides detailed information on slag formation and scrap melting, and helps the design of lance patterns and flux batching.
      The application of this model at ArcelorMittal Burns Harbor has brought various benefits and improvements.


    • 142

    • Advanced Blowing and Stirring Conditions in the BOF Process

      Three examples are used to demonstrate how the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) process can be improved. Thanks to a new calibration procedure for the BOF top lance, a quick check can be performed to find whether the supersonic nozzles are operating at the design point.


    • 157

    • Flammability Limits for Oxygen Steelmaking Offgas Mixture and Their Implementation in a Steelmaking Shop

      The lower and upper explosive limits of combustible gases, such as carbon monoxide and hydrogen in air, are well known. However, for complex steelmaking offgas mixtures containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen as fuel, oxygen as an oxidizer, and inert gases carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water vapor, the criterion for detecting an explosive condition is not as widely accepted. The methodology to establish a criterion and the implementation of this criterion are discussed.



    • 181

    • Life Extension of BOF Lower Hood at U. S. Steel Canada – Lake Erie Works via Engineering and Design Changes

      This paper discusses the results of investigations into frequent leaks of lower hood cooling water tubes on two suppressed combustion hood systems at U. S. Steel Canada – Lake Erie Works. The operational conditions and lower hood tube panel configurations were analyzed to gain a deeper understanding of cooling tube leaks. The results were used to guide the redesign of new lower hood panels, which have operated without disruption or leaks, and with greater efficiency and reliability over the previous design.


    • 277

    • Importance of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Modeling for Understanding Ironmaking and Steelmaking Processes

      The advent of computational fluid flow and heat transfer revolutionized the steel industry, and has allowed technologists to challenge their limits. While it is easier to validate steelmaking computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations by water models, validation of CFD models for ironmaking are difficult. CFD models validated with actual experiments proved to be reliable for the last three decades and will continue to provide a greater understanding of these processes.