ICRF


Schedule

21–23 June 2022 • Sheraton Pittsburgh Hotel at Station Square • Pittsburgh, Pa., USA

Monday, 20 June

4-6 p.m.

Registration

5 p.m.

Welcome Reception 

Tuesday, 21 June

8:05 a.m.

Keynote Speaker: Challenges for a 21st Century Specialty Metals Company
Graham McIntosh, Universal Stainless and Alloy Products
Evolving from its roots in 1994 as a manufacturer of tool steels, Universal Stainless today is a multi-site corporation in the Northeastern United States, with a global reach that spans diverse markets, alloys and product forms. As a relatively young company in mature markets, dominated by aerospace and associated quality assurance standards, significant progress has been made in the last decade through investments and the development of a greenfield site with state-of-the-art equipment, including vacuum induction melting, vacuum arc remelting, radial forging, heat treatment and finishing, that is integrated into a single business segment across four facilities in three states. Complementing the core business of argon-oxygen-decarburization melting, with or without vacuum arc or electroslag remelting and downstream hot rolling capabilities, significant market penetration has been made in a highly competitive landscape, which will continue into the future. This presentation will discuss this journey and future challenges.

8:50 a.m.

Manufacture of Large Superalloy Ingots and Extruded Pipes
John deBarbadillo, Special Metals
Alloy 740H is a gamma prime strengthened nickel-based superalloy that was developed for use in advanced energy applications. This paper presents the results of a U.S. Department of Energy contract to demonstrate the ability of the U.S. industry to manufacture large pipes, fittings and bends.

9:20 a.m.

BREAK

9:40 a.m.

Enhanced Steels by Ingot Casting
John Campbell, University of Birmingham, U.K.
Current techniques for the casting of ingots involve much mixing with air, ensuring a high population of oxide inclusions in the steel. The inclusions are in the form of folded, doubled-over oxides, which act as cracks for the initiation of failure. Casting in vacuum reduces the thickness of the oxides, reducing the total oxygen in the steel, but probably does not reduce the crack population. Techniques for reducing air entrainment are presented, including contact pour.

10:10 a.m.

ATS – Advanced Teeming System – Design Considerations, Equipment and Operational Experience From Recent Installations
Christian Redl, Inteco melting and casting technologies GmbH
The presentation reviews recent advances and operational results of automated teeming solutions. 

10:40 a.m.

Advanced Steelmaking and Forging Strategy for Large Steel Ingots
Tobias Dubberstein, Schmiedewerke Gröditz GmbH
A new square-sized ingot was introduced for large tool steel forgings. First plant results show good hot top shrinkage of the top head of the ingot. Larger cross-sections for plastic mold steel bars have been forged without any upsetting at the forging press. The core porosity has been sufficiently low of the new ingot. 

11:10 a.m.

Improving Operator Safety, Increasing Productivity and Enhancing Ingot Quality by Installation of Two 100-ton Ingot Casting Cars at Ovako
Christian Redl, Inteco melting and casting technologies GmbH
The paper summarizes Ovako's and INTECO's experiences in the implementation of two 100-metric-ton ingot casting cars. It covers the early concept stage, the engineering and installation phase, as well as the start-up and operation of the casting cars. 

11:40 a.m.

A Segregation, Porosity and CET Zone Prediction in Steel Ingots: Method, Calibration, Validation and Examples
Ovidiu Bogdan, Industrial Soft
The goal of this work was to put in evidence the steps taken to implement tools needed to assess segregation, porosity and columnar to equiaxial transition zone (CET) in steel ingots in order to choose the optimum technology parameters to get a cost-effective product, save time and energy, and improve the internal quality of the ingots. To predict segregation, porosity and CET area, mathematical models have been used that take into account the chemical composition and ingot cooling conditions. The results obtained by simulation have been compared to sulfur print, cut ingots and laboratory experimental data to calibrate the models and verify the results. Examples of using these techniques will demonstrate their utility in optimization of the chemical composition of poured steel, ingot mold geometry (height/medium diameter ratio, ingot taper and mold wall thickness) and several pouring variables (pouring temperature, hot top size, pouring rate, etc.).

12:10–1 p.m.

LUNCH

1 p.m.

Optimization of Blank Weights for Automated Large-Diameter Forging Lines
Philipp Pirolt, Linsinger
At the beginning of every forging process is the raw material. Requirements to the forging process are constantly increasing in terms of material saving, productivity and yield. Cold circular sawing machines have the advantage of straight and perpendicular cuts with no thermal influence to the cutting surface. In combination with a material feeding tong as a positioning device, exact cutoff lengths are achieved. Especially for the closed-die forging, cutting to a set weight is required. After cutting the ingot, every cutoff is put on a weighing scale. This information optimizes the cut weight for the next cutoff. The required material tracking is also established by connection of the control system to higher levels and marking devices and readers. The cutting tool is an essential part of guaranteeing the performance of a sawing line. This presentation will discuss the LINCUT disc miller system, which enables higher cutting speeds and at the same time longer tool lifetime. 

1:30 p.m. 

From Ingot to Round, Comparison Between V-Shape and Flat Die Sets
Nicolas Poulain, Transvalor Americas Corp.
The transformation from an ingot to a round shape can follow multiple deformation paths, but which one is best? This study intends to answer this question for at least between two deformation paths; a V-shape die and flat die sets. It will look at the impact on the number of blows to get to the proper round shape, the recrystallization occurring during these two options, and the strain obtained within the centerline of the ingot. The ingot filling and solidification will also be taken into consideration to estimate the closure of porosities in the centerline during the two open-die forging scenarios. The entire work, ingot filling and solidification, and the cogging will be done virtually through simulation. The audience will have a better idea of what might work best for their applications after the presentation of the case study.

2 p.m.

BREAK

2:20 p.m. 

Thermomechanical Study of H13 Hot-Forged Bars
Lea Ebacher, Finkl Steel–Sorel
H13 is a hot work tool steel used as extrusion and forging dies in metal-forming industries. It is characterized by its high thermal stability and wear resistance. The alloy is generally produced by hot forging of large-size cast ingots. However, the selection of the hot forging parameters significantly influences the evolution of the microstructure, as well as the formability of the alloy, which may lead to surface cracks and internal defects during forging. In the present work, a thermomechanical study of H13 is conducted to quantify the impact of different deformation conditions on microstructure evolution and to better understand the specific characteristics of this steel. Specifically, the kinetics of grain growth and carbide dissolution at different forging temperatures were determined. Then, hot compression tests enabled the modeling of stress strain curves that were used in finite element simulation of hot forging of a large-size bar.

2:50 p.m. 

Development of Closure Evaluation Test Method and Prediction Technology of Closing Internal Voids Using Casting Ingot
Tomoiki Tsuji, Daido Steel Co. Ltd.
In the manufacturing process of special steel products, it is important to close the voids inside the ingot for the good quality. In this study, the effect of hot forging conditions for void closure using small ingot and finite element method analysis was investigated. Furthermore, the void closure parameter Q-value for hot forging and hot rolling with a full-scale ingot was evaluated.

3:20 p.m.

BREAK

3:30p.m.   

Findings From a Decarbonization Study of the Forging Furnaces at Universal Stainless North Jackson
Jared Kaufman, CIC Pittsburgh
Global concerns have recently resulted in an interest in the potential decarbonization of the steel industry. To date, most of the focus has been on the steelmaking process. Meanwhile, there has been very little attention on the downstream forging operation. In forging, the largest direct generators of carbon dioxide emissions are the forging furnaces used to heat ingots from ambient to forging temperatures. Most forging operations utilize natural gas–fired furnaces, which have been the most economical option. However, it may now be time to start considering the possibility of retrofitting existing furnaces for the purpose of reducing or eliminating carbon dioxide emissions. This paper summarizes the findings from a recent study of the existing forging operation at Universal Stainless North Jackson and provides an evaluation of the baseline carbon dioxide generation rate, options for achieving reductions or elimination of carbon dioxide emissions, and the potential economic impact.

4 p.m.

Modern Rolling Mill Rolls: From Ingot Making to Service Life Cycle
Konstantin Redkin, WHEMCO Inc.
The state of the art of different types of large section rolling mill rolls’ ingot manufacturing and processing will be discussed via complex engineering approaches, advanced materials characterization tools, non-destructive testing and evaluation, and new challenging rolling mill requirements. The focus will be on the roll ingot making, addressing heterogeneous microstructure development, residual stress distribution and service life cycle.

4:30 p.m.

Steckel Mill for Rolling of Specialty Alloy Flat Products at Carpenter Technology
Patrick Stockhausen, Carpenter Technology Corp.
With increasing demand for specialty alloy coil products and growing demand for soft magnetic materials to enable the world’s drive for electrification, Carpenter Technology has recently commissioned a new Steckel hot rolling mill at its Reading campus. The mill provides a dramatic improvement in capabilities for Carpenter, producing much larger coil diameters, increased widths and reduced thicknesses in the most difficult of materials. To date, this mill has been used in the production of a wide range of alloys from stainless and tool steels, to nickel iron and iron cobalt soft magnetic alloys, to nickel-based and cobalt-based superalloys.

6 p.m.

Reception and Dinner

Wednesday, 22 June

7 a.m.

Registration and Continental Breakfast

8 a.m.

Quo Vadis, Long Steel Product? The Transformation of the Special Steel Industry
Till Schneiders, Deutsche Edelstahlwerke Specialty Steel GmbH & Co. KG
Technological progress, availability of resources and social megatrends have always set the framework for production in the special steel industry. In the past few years, some of these fundamental framework conditions have changed at the same time, so that a major upheaval is currently taking place. Economic, political, social and technical challenges such as Covid-19, digital transformation, the increasing importance of sustainability, etc., require different answers from the (long) steel industry. This contribution provides an overview of selected answers from the steel industry on the topics of resource-friendly use of materials/consumption (e.g., materials for lightweight production), new mobility concepts or the replacement of fossil fuels (e.g., green steel and steels for hydrogen applications). The focus is both on production and products. 

8:30 a.m.

Profiled Roll Design: What Can Go Wrong?
Nicolas Poulain, Transvalor Americas Corp.
From I-beam to square to sheet pile, roll design is an art that requires years of experience. To master a roll design, one will take decades to fully understand what to avoid and what works. Simulation is a quicker way to get there. While simulation does not replace the on-the-floor experience, it can definitely speed up the process, and free one to try out multiple promising designs. This presentation will go through several simulated designs that went wrong, showing how one can quickly understand that the design will not work and why. The simulation provides all the data needed to take a deep dive into the analysis of what went wrong, and hopefully come up eventually with a design that works to get it right the first time on the production floor. 

9 a.m.

BREAK

9:10 a.m. 

A Real-Time Measurement System for In-Situ Ingot Quality Evaluation During Vacuum Arc Remelting
Paul King, Ampere Scientific
Utilizing magnetic field flux measurements to sense arc conditions during vacuum arc remelting provides a pathway for a real-time measurement system capable of determining deleterious operating conditions that lead to ingot product quality concerns. This presentation discusses the theoretical background for performing these measurements and provides indicative results during operation, including identification of various deleterious operating conditions, some of which are identifiable with the current state-of-the-art measurements and some that are not. Measurement results will be presented demonstrating the efficacy of the measurement system, including rapid identification of constricted arcs, glows and shelf fall-in. Evidence will be provided for how these measurements relate to ingot quality and how they can be utilized as a durable record of product quality. 

9:40 a.m.

Electrode Quality for the Remelting Processes
Alec Mitchell, University of British Columbia
The quality of remelted ingots is directly related to the quality of the electrode. Aspects of the electrode manufacturing processes are discussed in the presentation.

10:10 a.m. 

BREAK

10:20 a.m. 

Effect of AC Frequency on Melting Conditions During Electroslag Remelting
Brendan Connolly, Ellwood Quality Steels
This work examines the differences in melting conditions and ingot quality of 30-inch-diameter electroslag remelting using 60 Hz versus 2.5 Hz alternating current. Metallurgical comparisons include melt pool depth and shape, microcleanliness, segregation, and inclusion distribution. Electrical and physical conditions during melting are compared. The critical operating parameter differences necessary to achieve similar high-quality remelted product are also identified.

10:50 a.m. 

The Effect of Strong Deoxidants in Vacuum Removal of Oxide Inclusions
Andrew Huck, Center for Iron and Steelmaking Research, Carnegie Mellon University
Strong deoxidants such as aluminum and calcium have been observed in failure features in vacuum processes. This work hypothesizes that the suppression of solution oxygen activity by strong deoxidants can slow the kinetics of vacuum carbothermic reduction for oxygen removal in solution. This would explain the presence of the elements in observed features. 

11:20 a.m. 

Examination of Effect of Uncertainty in Accommodation Coefficients on Modeling of He-Based Heat Transfer in VAR
Richard H. Smith, Carpenter Technology Corp.
In order to examine the effect of uncertainty in accommodation coefficients, a sensitivity analysis was performed to show the effect on sidewall heat transfer coefficient. Previously published vacuum arc remelt process data was used as input to a commercial model to show the effect of uncertainty on model output.

Noon- 1 p.m.

LUNCH

1 p.m.

Effect of Processing on the Microstructure-Property Relationship Between a 4340 Wrought Steel and a 4340 Selective Laser Melted Steel
Pedro de Souza Ciacco, University of Pittsburgh
This study compares austenite grain growth and its continuous cooling transformation (CCT) behavior between selective laser melting (SLM) 4340 and conventional wrought 4340 steels. Standard dilatometry tests were used to determine the austenite decomposition behavior at different cooling rates. The analysis of the data from the controlled cooling paths was used to generate CCT diagrams for the two steels investigated in this study. Advanced microstructural characterization techniques, scanning electron microscopy and orientation imaging microscopy were employed to support the CCT diagrams. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and a special EBSD image quality characterization technique were used to assess the percentage of the microstructural components observed.

1:30 p.m. 

Assessment of the Microstructural Changes That Attend the Austenite Decomposition of an Advanced High-Strength Steel Subjected to Different Cooling Rates During Unidirectional Solidification
Luis Fellipe Simoes, University of Pittsburgh
The impact of cooling rate on the microstructural evolution of unidirectionally solidified advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) laboratory ingots was the central focus of this study. The understanding of the influence of cooling rates on the austenite decomposition of unidirectionally solidified AHSS can be used to eliminate or reduce the incidence of cracking in continuously cast AHSS slabs. The results of this study clearly showed the importance of thermal path on the austenite decomposition. The resulting microstructure determines the ability of the slab to withstand the transformation stresses during cooling.

2 p.m.

BREAK

2:20 p.m.

Advances, Results and Operational Experiences in Steelmaking Technology for Ingot Casting Companies
Christian Redl, Inteco melting and casting technologies GmbH
The present paper covers the entire production process of ingots starting from the primary melting process in the electric arc furnace via secondary metallurgical treatments up to modern casting solutions.

2:50 p.m.

Sensitivity Analysis of a Continuous Caster
Nicolas Poulain, Transvalor Americas Corp.    
"How fast can I cast? Is my mold tapered enough to reduce air gap? What happens when a spray section is removed for maintenance?” This study will answer these questions with a variety of simulation results comparing these scenarios. The study will look at the impact on air gap within the mold, cooling rate, porosity, and segregation and other relevant results. Tracking sensors will be used to focus on specific areas of the casting and compare the different scenarios. This is supposed to be an educational presentation to bring awareness on these types of issues seen on the shop floor.

3:20 p.m.

BREAK

3:30 p.m.

Effect of Tempering Time and Temperature on Hardness and Impact Toughness of Ultrahigh-Strength Steel
Viraj Ashok Athavale, Missouri University of Science and Technology
The effect of stage-I tempering temperature and time was investigated in a low-alloy, ultrahigh-strength steel with the goal of optimizing notch toughness and tempered hardness. Hot-rolled plates were austenitized and water quenched followed by stage-I tempering in the range of 302°F (150°C) to 482°F (250°C). Tempering times varied from 30 minutes to 4 hours for each temperature. Charpy V-notch tests were subsequently performed at -40°F (-40°C). Scanning electron microscopy was performed to understand the role of transition carbides on mechanical properties of fractured test bars. Although most specimens exhibited a ductile fracture mode, higher tempering temperatures and longer tempering times showed a significant drop in notch toughness as well as tempered hardness. Optimum properties were obtained for test bars tempered at 175°C (347°F) for 2 hours, with a notch toughness of 49.8J (36.76 ft-lbs) and a tempered hardness of 50 HRC. 

4 p.m.

Process Design for Induction Hardening of a Steel Work Roll Using Simulation
Justin Sims, DANTE Solutions
Work rolls used in the rolling of steel billets are generally made of high-hardenability steel and must be heat treated prior to entering service to ensure a sufficiently hard working surface. Compared to traditional quench hardening, induction hardening (IH) has become a more popular process for hardening work rolls. However, designing the critical IH process parameters can be more challenging than traditional quenching. The determination of these parameters has long been trial and error or experience based, but heat treatment simulation capabilities now offer a more cost-effective and robust solution. The following paper examines how heat treatment simulation can be used to design the critical process parameters for IH of a work roll to meet case depth and hardness requirements, while ensuring a low probability of developing quench cracks. Distortion and residual stresses are also predicted using simulation, which are critical for evaluating product performance in service.

4:30 p.m.  

Radiative Analysis During Steel Ingot Transportation
Nicolas Poulain, Transvalor Americas Corp.
Regardless of the process, the resolution of the thermal equations in finite element method software remains key to accurate prediction. The complexity of heat transfers comes from the radiative phenomena. The paper describes how these phenomena take place during the transport of large-dimension ingots coming from metal casting. The ingots are transported in wagons over several hours and it is crucial to study the relative position of each ingot to control the temperature variations due to radiative phenomena. The radiative heat transfer in a transparent medium is based on a method that uses purely geometrical factors called form factors (or view factors). Calculating these factors is preponderant and requires the use of high-performance digital tools. This paper will present the analytical solutions for simple geometries used to validate this radiation model and the benefits of these new tools for more elaborated industrial applications.

Thursday, 23 June

7 a.m. 

Registration and Continental Breakfast

8 a.m.

Transient Three-Dimensional Modeling of Thermo-Hydraulic Phenomena During Water Quenching of Large Steel Blocks
Mounir Baiteche, École de technologie supérieure
To produce steel blocks with high mechanical properties, large steel pieces on the order of several tens of tons in mass are heated in gas-fired furnaces, after which they are quenched in a water tank. Due to the large size of these steel blocks and their thermal inertia, temperature gradients and different cooling rates are created between the surface and the core of the block that have a critical influence on phase transformation, residual stresses and distortion of the block. Therefore, hydrodynamic and thermal phenomena which are imposed in the quenching bath play significant roles in the efficiency of the quenching process and their impact needs to be analyzed and quantified. In the present work, a transient and 3D thermo-hydraulic model of an industrial-sized quench tank is developed to simulate the above parameters on the cooling rate of a large size steel block. The model solves the turbulent with free-surface hydrodynamic system and considers evaporation of water in contact with the workpiece surface during quenching.

8:30 a.m.

Thermo-Structural Numerical Modeling of Pre-Forging Heating of Steel Input Stocks: Productivity Improvement vs. Internal Cracking Susceptibility
Andrea Meleddu, Astarte Strategies Srl
Pre-forging heating procedures in batch furnaces for steel input stocks are analyzed by means of a coupled numerical-experimental approach. The heating process efficiency and product quality depend on the adopted procedures. Severe heating rates promote productivity but may induce large skin core thermal and stress gradients, thus increasing the failure risk. Finite element analysis was performed to simulate the thermo-structural aspects of heating procedures on a specific furnace and by accounting for a set of input stocks of different shape, size and material. The numerical study allowed for optimizing the current heating procedure to achieve higher productivity while mitigating failure risk.

9 a.m.

BREAK

9:10 a.m. 

The Benefits of a Meltshop Management System Incorporating Least-Cost Optimizations and Inventory Control Working With ERP and SCADA Systems Within an Organization
George Longstaff, Multon Process Technology Ltd.
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems are found in all metals industry businesses. However, a further technical manufacturing execution system (MES) layer is required for the meltshop. A meltshop management system can provide highly specialized, supported and configurable software to maximize efficiency and productivity at the MES level. This includes inventory control, furnace planning, optimization calculations for initial charge and bath corrections, furnace data consolidation, and laboratory management. The meltshop management system will bridge the gap between the ERP and SCADA systems, providing cost and energy-saving benefits by using features specific to the melting and materials departments. The meltshop management system must be capable of integrating with other systems to provide a true “end-to-end” solution. Allowing each system to perform its specialized functions and having clearly defined interface points for data sharing will maximize the potential of each system in the organization. 

9:40 a.m.

Remote Melt Support of Consarc Customers During the Pandemic – Chances and Challenges
Eike Schmilinsky, CONSARC - An Inductotherm Group Company
Consarc is proud of its ability to provide superior service and on-site support, with metallurgists and engineers, for equipment commissioning, training and acceptance. The COVID-19 pandemic and related travel restrictions disrupted traditional approaches to in-person support. In order to provide first-class support while maintaining quality and safety, Consarc developed a new framework of remote melt support. It formulated its decades of firsthand superalloy meltshop experiences into detailed protocols with best practices, photos and instructions, always with an emphasis on safety. In support of customers worldwide, Consarc scheduled 24/7 online coverage, with metallurgists spread across six countries, and utilized video streaming, instant messaging and remote computer access. The key to success was the outstanding global reach of local Inductotherm Group companies in Brazil, China, India and beyond. Supported by the Inductotherm Group’s “global yet local” approach, Consarc managed safe and successful start-ups of vacuum induction melting, vacuum precision investment casting, electroslag remelting and vacuum arc remelting units.

10:10 a.m.

BREAK

10:20 a.m. 

Panel Discussion

 

Concluding Remarks

11:30 a.m.-Noon

BOX LUNCH

Noon

Tours of Ellwood Quality Steel, New Castle Complex, Universal Stainless
North Jackson, (this tour will only permit Green card and U.S. citizens), and Vesuvius Research USA