Scrap Suppl. & Alt. Ironmaking


Schedule

6–8 March 2023 • Wyndham Lake Buena Vista Disney Springs Resort Area • Orlando, FL USA


►Download Program (PDF)

Monday, 6 March 2023

2–4 p.m.

Registration       

5–6 p.m.

Reception

Tuesday, 7 March 2023

7 a.m.

Registration and Breakfast

8 a.m.

Overview of Direct Reduction and Alternative Ironmaking Processes and Products
Joseph Poveromo, RMI Global Consulting 
This symposium covers the development and application of alternative (to the blast furnace) ironmaking processes where the objectives include the following: • Hot metal processes to feed oxygen converters or electric arc furnaces (EAFs). • Direct reduction processes to feed electric arc furnaces or to produce direct reduced iron/hot briquetted iron (DRI/HBI) to feed blast furnaces, oxygen converters, etc. • Direct reduction or hot metal processes to process waste oxides from either EAF mini-mills or fully integrated plants. Accordingly, this introductory lecture will present an overview of these direct reduction and alternative ironmaking processes and the products they produce.

8:30 a.m.

Producing DRI From Zinc-Contaminated Steelmaking Byproduct Dusts
Basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS) dust and blast furnace (BF) dust are byproducts of the integrated steelmaking process. While they contain valuable iron content, their contamination with zinc often precludes their recycling via the conventional sinter plant/BF route. Rotary hearth furnaces (RHFs) are an emerging technology for recovery of these materials, generating a recyclable zinc-rich baghouse dust and DRI product suitable for recycling to the blast furnace (BF) or basic oxygen furnace (BOF). Zinc-contaminated dust obtained from an integrated steel producer in the United Kingdom was used to perform a laboratory-scale benchmarking study on producing DRI from byproducts. The carbon content of the BF dust was found to be usable as a reductant to drive reduction reactions, and volatile metals were found to be easily removed at realistic RHF temperatures and hold times. Iron reduction was also found to be sufficient for recycling, but sulfur originating from the BF dust was found to concentrate in fired pellets. High levels of sulfur combined with high levels of gangue mean that the DRI would be more suited to recycling to the BF rather than the BOF. The comparatively low value-in-use of the DRI produced from BF and BOF dusts may not offset production costs via the RHF, but higher-quality DRI suitable for the BOF may be produced using low-sulfur alternative reductants such as biomass. 

9 a.m. 

The Alterna Flash Iron-Fines Reduction (FIFR) Process: A New H2-Based DRI Process for Unpelletized Iron Ore Concentrate and Iron Oxide Fines
Lee Nigg, Alterna Materials
A new hydrogen-based iron ore flash reduction process is presented which handles iron ore fines at a very low Fe content, rapidly generating high metallization in a small footprint. The modular design allows the process to be rapidly deployed at any scale by pairing multiple reactors in parallel. The process can be used to produce DRI from any grade of iron ore and to treat and reduce iron ore fines from existing DRI plants or waste iron oxide from existing steel mills. The process can, if needed, independently generate its own reducing gases from a multitude of feed types and sources including internal waste streams. CO2 emissions are zero for green, H2-based plant configurations and extremely low for natural gas or syngas-based configurations. Design fundamentals, performance data and implementation status will be discussed.

9:30 a.m.

Break

10 a.m.

Grid Interactive Steelmaking With Hydrogen (GISH)
Yuri Korobeinikov, Arizona State University​
Growing capacities of renewable energy generation will gradually enable economical production of hydrogen with the help of water electrolysis in the events of excessive energy supply. However, fluctuating nature of renewable energy generation poses a question of reduction agent for ironmaking in the periods of time when hydrogen production becomes non-economical. One of the solutions could be the use of natural gas which is abundant in the U.S. market. The scope of the GISH project is to evaluate and implement semi-industrial technology of the hydrogen and natural gas-based steelmaking. A team from Arizona State University is responsible for the experimental measurement and modeling of kinetics of the iron ore pellets reduction in various H2-CO gas mixtures. A new enhanced model of single pellet reduction and a model of reactor scale reduction have been created in COMSOL Multiphysics. Models of reduction are validated with experiments in a laboratory-scale reactor and in pilot plant reduction trials with hydrogen and natural gas. The progress of two years of project work is discussed.

10:30 a.m.

Hydrogen DRI: The Effect of Carbon Content on Melting Behavior
The production of DRI using pure hydrogen gas is a new technology that is being investigated and utilized internationally. The focus of this research is to characterize the melting behavior of carbon-free hydrogen-reduced DRI and compare it to commercial carbon DRI and HBI. Melting experiments have been carried out in a laboratory setting as well as a commercial EAF. A model developed using finite element analysis was compared to experimental data.

11 a.m.

Comparison of DRI Strength From Reduction in CO vs. H2-Dominant Gas-Based Reduction
As the global drive for decarbonization pressures the iron- and steelmaking industry to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, DRI has become an increasingly attractive option to produce high-quality iron units. While most current DRI plants utilize natural gas to produce a mixture of CO and H2, many plants are likely to blend and potentially fully replace natural gas with hydrogen to further reduce emissions. However, the phase compositions and resultant microstructure of DRI produced in carbon monoxide and hydrogen-dominant reduction differ and contribute significantly to the resultant pellet strength. This in turn affects fines generation and losses incurred during shipping and handling, an important concern for DRI plants separated from steelmaking facilities. Therefore, the characterization of DRI produced in carbon monoxide and hydrogen-dominant atmospheres is crucial to develop measures to reduce loss and waste.

11:30 a.m.

Distribution Behavior of Phosphorus and Metallization of Iron Oxide in Carbothermic Reduction of High-Phosphorus Iron Ore
Sungmo Jung, Pohang University of Science and Technology
Distribution behavior of phosphorus and metallization of iron ore in the carbothermic reduction of high-phosphorus iron ore were investigated. Reduction degree of the iron oxide was evaluated by quadruple mass spectrometry connected to thermogravimetric analysis. The distribution of some elements including phosphorus was examined by electron probe microanalyzer mapping analyses. The reduction behavior of high-phosphorus iron ore was evaluated as a function of reduction temperature, C/O molar ratio and CaO addition. High reduction temperature accelerated the reduction of both iron oxide and hydroxylapatite, and high C/O molar ratio also promotes them. Those were contradictory to the targets of higher reduction degree of iron oxide and of lower one of hydroxylapatite. It was confirmed that appropriate amount of CaO addition could enhance the reduction of iron oxide, and regulate the reduction of hydroxylapatite.

Noon

Lunch

1 p.m.

Development of Adiabatic Countercurrent Moving Bed for Shaft Furnace Simulator
Moritoshi Mizutani, Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Co.
This presentation discusses a shaft furnace simulator, which is an adiabatic-type countercurrent moving bed that can evaluate temperature distribution in the furnace that changes due to the heat of reaction. A reducing gas was blown from the bottom of the reaction tube at 960°C, and the flowrate was gradually increased to 300 NL/minute over 1 hour. The sample of DRI was discharged at a discharge rate of 7 L/hour and cooled once per hour to collect them. The reduction gradually proceeded after switching to the reducing gas, and the reduction rate of the DRI reached around 90% in about 3 hours. The temperature inside the furnace had almost reached a steady state. Stable operation to produce DRI with a reduction rate of 90% was carried out, and it has become possible to evaluate the effects of operating specifications such as gas consumption on the temperature and reduction rate distribution in the shaft furnace. It was confirmed that the pellet strength at the low-temperature thermal reserve zone is lower than that of the final product of DRI, and recovers as the reduction degree increases. 

1:30 p.m. 

Melting of HBI/DRI Scrap in an AC Electric Arc Furnace: A CFD Study
Orlando Ugarte, Purdue University Northwest
The use of HBI/DRI in EAFs has increased in recent years due to its high carbon content and the need for scrap supply. In this investigation, a previously developed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) platform is extended to compute the effect that HBI/DRI composition has on the scrap melting process and steel quality. The CFD platform provides a comprehensive description of the EAF operation by computing the melting of the HBI/DRI material when exposed to the heat transferred by the electric arc and burners. In addition, the chemical reactions of species forming the HBI/DRI material is computed, and the effect that these reactions have on the overall process is described. Multiple scenarios where the HBI/DRI composition and operation conditions are varied are addressed and compared with previously studied scenarios.

2 p.m.

Coupled CFD and DEM Simulation of Iron Ore Pellet Flow Jamming in a DRI Feed Hopper
Tyamo Okosun, Purdue University Northwest
Direct reduction ironmaking is a method of producing solid iron product from iron ore pellets using reducing gases. Iron ore pellets are continuously fed through a hopper to into a direct reduction furnace for steady operation. One difficulty that can arise with controlled granular flows is clogging of the material that stops operation. This issue can arise with iron ore flow as it is fed through a material hopper in the DRI process. Determining the direct cause of this phenomenon is useful to prevent operational slowdowns due to material feed jams. Real-world observation has indicated that this phenomenon can occur more often in cold and wet winter months in North American facilities. A coupled CFD and discrete element method (DEM) model of pellets flowing through a hopper has been created to investigate the clogging phenomenon under relevant operational conditions. 

2:30 p.m.

Break

3 p.m.

The ENERGIRON Technology: The Perfect Fit Between Decarbonization and Direct Reduction
Among the various approaches for decarbonization of the steelmaking industry, direct reduction has proven to be the right solution, thanks to the readiness of the technology, effectiveness in abatement of the greenhouse gas emissions and cost effectiveness. When using DRI, two main routes should be considered, based on the intensive use of hydrogen (H2) (carbon direct avoidance) and capture and use of CO2 (carbon capture and utilization). One consists of the progressive conversion of the BF-BOF facilities to direct reduction-electric arc furnace. The second alternative is the production of hot metal (HM) by installing a gas-based direct reduction plant feeding DRI to an open slag bath furnace (DRI-OSBF). ENERGIRON®, the DRI technology by Tenova and Danieli, is the benchmark for sustainability and provides the needed flexibility during the current historic period of energy transition. Schemes for liquid steel production with reduced or practically nil carbon input by using H2, its equivalent cost for DRI production and the reduction of CO2 emissions are analyzed.

3:30 p.m.

MIDREX Flex: Moving From Natural Gas to Hydrogen
Will Friesinger, Midrex Technologies Inc.
One of the biggest challenges facing the global iron and steel industry is decarbonization. Having the right solutions to reduce carbon for greener steel production, and doing it more economically, is going to be critical. The MIDREX Plant is extremely flexible and can accommodate the initial transitions from a carbon to a hydrogen economy. Midrex offers technologies that bridge the transition from 100% natural gas to 100% hydrogen direct reduction, including MIDREX Flex, which provides a plant the flexibility to operate on any mixture of natural gas and hydrogen (up to 100% hydrogen) with some low-risk modifications.

4 p.m.

HYFOR – Hydrogen-Based Fine Ore Reduction – From an Idea to a Pilot Plant
Thomas Wolfinger, K1-MET GmbH
The idea of directly using fine ore and green or low-carbon hydrogen as reducing agent in a direct reduction
process was born a long time ago. It is the vision that such a process could be the basis for low-cost CO2-free
steelmaking. This presentation discusses the creation and evolution of the HYFOR process, a fluidized bed technology directly using ore fines and hydrogen.

5 p.m.            

Reception

Wednesday, 8 March 2023

7 a.m.

Breakfast

8 a.m.

Electric Furnace Smelting for Alternative Hot Metal Production
The steelmaking industry cannot survive on scrap alone and there will always be a need for virgin iron units to enter the manufacturing cycle. If or when the Blast Furnace eventually reaches its end of life, alternative technologies that can better harness the advantages of renewable resources will become increasingly attractive. The alternative technologies will need to be flexible and adept at processing iron ores of variable and ultimately declining quality, in combination with the available recycled scrap resources. The electric smelting furnace (ESF) is a proven alternative to the blast furnace for the smelting of DRI made from medium-grade iron ores to produce liquid metal. It can produce a hot metal equivalent to the BF, providing a feasible lower-carbon alternative ironmaking technology to the industry. The operating results for the three existing examples of ESF’s applied to iron production using DRI are summarized for New Zealand Steel, Steel Dynamics and Highveld-Robusteel. These operations display a broad range of flexibility in the choice of feed quality, degree of reduction and the ability to manage higher slag volumes in immersed electrode smelting furnaces.

8:30 a.m.

Ironmaking Using Raw Sustainable Biomass and Microwave Energy
Rio Tinto has been working on technology pathways which do not require the use of coal for processing Pilbara iron ores to iron and steel for well over a decade. Use of natural gas, hydrogen and biomass as reductants has been studied with a unique option combining microwave energy with raw sustainable biomass (rather than char) showing strong potential. Test work with single “briquettes” made from a range of raw sustainable biomass including agricultural wastes, purpose grown energy crops, macro and micro algae with Pilbara iron ore fines indicated the potential of the process at laboratory scale. Initial scale-up to 1,000 briquette batches confirmed the early test work and has positioned the technology for the next stage of scale-up.

9 a.m.

Use of Dry Reforming Catalyst to Increase Reducing Gas Production by Supplementing Green Hydrogen Into Feed/Fuel Thus Reducing Both Fuel Requirement and CO2 Emissions
Gary Bennington, Unicat Technologies Inc.
Key to unlocking further DRI efficiencies is the ability to improve ways in which hydrogen generated from renewable sources can be utilized as feed or fuel to a MIDREX-style reformer. Alternative manufacturing methods have been developed focusing on the catalyst support to unlock further benefits and capacities from existing and new-build DRI equipment. MagCat dry reforming catalyst is fully commercialized and data from various sources and is presented in this paper to demonstrate the benefits of the novel spherical, textured shape. MagCat dry reforming catalysts comprise active nickel on an innovative spherical, textured ceramic carrier giving improved heat transfer capabilities, higher structural strength, and providing lower pressure drop from a loaded reformer tube. MagCat is compatible with all tubular reformers used for dry reforming and is installed in over 25 syngas plants worldwide. The addition of levels of hydrogen, generated from renewable sources to the standard feed, fuel or both are discussed with clear impacts demonstrated on reducing gas generated, fuel used, pressure drop evident and tube wall temperature impacts. Energy efficiency, lower CO2 emissions, increased reducing gas production, and extended tube life are some of the advantages discussed in this paper. 

9:30 a.m. 

Break

10 a.m. 

Approaches to Find the Lowest Cost and Most Reliable Decarbonization Pathway

10:30 a.m.

Magnum Mining’s Plans for a Green Pig Iron Plant in the U.S.
Neil Goodman, Magnum Mining and Exploration
Magnum Mining and Exploration Ltd. has announced plans to reopen its Buena Vista iron ore mine in Nevada and convert the concentrate to pig iron using the HIsmelt direct smelting technology. The HIsmelt furnace will use sustainably produced biochar as the reductant and will therefore emit net-zero carbon dioxide. The pig iron will be certified as “green” for use in EAFs for the production of green steel.

11 a.m.

Several Applications of Advanced Electric Smelting Furnace Technology for Low-Emission Electric Steelmaking
Johan van Boggelen, Tata Steel IJmuiden
The future of sustainable steelmaking requires innovative integration of new technologies into existing flowsheets to achieve a significant and cost-effective reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, beyond just CO2. The next-generation steel plant must improve safety and overall environmental performance from air, water and noise perspectives. Smelting DRI in an advanced electric smelting furnace as a blast furnace replacement strategy is one such innovative decarbonization approach that is being evaluated by integrated steelmakers. This paper describes several additional applications of the ESF technology in the steel value chain, including synergies between ESF and EAF for productivity increase, steelmaking waste valorization, production of a high value-in-use ore-based metallic (OBM) with low GHG footprint, and direct ESF steelmaking using low-C/C-free DRI.

11:30 a.m. 

Operational Experience at the HIsarna Pilot Plant
HIsarna is a new and breakthrough process for the production of liquid hot metal from iron ore. It is a smelting reduction ironmaking process which is being developed by Tata Steel at the site in IJmuiden, the Netherlands. It will reduce CO2 emissions compared to the blast furnace route and the process is also ideally suited for combination with carbon capture technology. A CO2 emission reduction of 50% without carbon capture has already been demonstrated. The pilot plant has been in operation in campaigns since 2011 and significant modifications were made to the plant between the different campaigns. In the past few years, significant steps were made to achieve stable process conditions and the focus is now moving more and more to plant reliability and availability in order to extend the duration of individual process runs and improve productivity. In addition, work is also ongoing to increase circularity and valorize revert streams in order to maximize sustainability.

Noon

Lunch

1 p.m.

Maritime Regulation and the HBI-C-Flex Project: Enabling International Shipment of Hot Briquetted Iron (HBI) in the Long Term
Chris Barrington, International Iron Metallics Association (IIMA)
Maritime transport of solid bulk cargoes, including direct reduced iron in its various forms, is governed by the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes (IMSBC) Code. Along the pathway to decarbonization of steel production, it seems inevitable that there will be changes to the properties of HBI that may impact compliance with the current requirements of the IMSBC Code. Such changes include the use of lower-grade iron ore feedstock and hydrogen-based HBI. HBI-C-Flex, a co-operative project among steel value chain participants (such as iron ore producers, technology and equipment suppliers, and iron and steel producers) aims at understanding the drivers of HBI reactivity/re-oxidation and thereby: • Gaining deeper understanding of the impact of iron ore quality on HBI reactivity trends during storage and transport under different ambient conditions. • Providing recommendations on how to produce HBI with flexible Fe and C content with a view to avoidance of harmful reoxidation during storage and transport. • Facilitating safe handling of HBI through enhanced measurement and risk analysis, thus enabling appropriate maritime regulations and thereby market access for a range of HBI products. After a short introduction, the presentation will describe the project scope and methodology in detail and provide a status update.

1:30 p.m.

The Future of Defossilization — Through the Looking Glass
Sara Hornby, Global Strategic Solutions Inc.​
H2 DRI EAF steelmaking is the projected future for global defossilization. Is this truly the most techno-socio-economic route? This paper will propose options.

2 p.m.

Ore-Based Metallics — Scrap Substitute, Supplement or Necessity?
Jeremy Jones, CIX Inc.​
Ore-based metallics have been utilized in EAF operations for many years. In the early days, geographical areas that lacked sufficient scrap to support EAF operations turned to DRI as a source of metallics. This was most prominent in areas that access to cheap and plentiful natural gas. Chronologically, the next phase in OBM utilization involved the use of pig iron in the EAF. The reasons for this were many — improved carbon yield to the bath, increased productivity and more consistent operations. The next big milestone in OBM utilization occurred when EAF operations transitioned into the production of flat products. Insufficient supply of prompt scrap necessitated the utilization of DRI, HBI and pig iron to achieve the desired product chemistry. This trend continued as EAFs moved into the production of higher and higher quality flat products resulting in the use of larger and larger quantities of OBMs. This paper will make the case that as we move into the next evolution of steelmaking and also consider the scrap market out to 2050, OBMs are no longer a luxury but instead have become a core feedstock for EAF steelmaking and will remain so in the future.

2:30 p.m. 

Break

3 p.m.

TBD

3:30 p.m.

Understanding of Rising and Failure of Gas-Based Direct Reduction Processes
Iakov Gordon, Hatch
The beginning of development of gas-based direct reduction processes goes back to the end of the 19th century. The history of development and implementation of various gas-based direct reduction processes will be studied in this presentation. The strength and week features of this processes will be evaluated. It will be shown that economics of the direct reduction process depends on cost of raw material and reducing agent, reliability of equipment and strict application of direct reduction principles. Deviation from these main principles leads to the failure of the new DRI technologies. Results of the evaluation show why Midrex and HYL are the only successful DRI gas-based processes, while other lost their competitive position and stop operation.

4 p.m.

Conference Adjourn