Oxy-Fuel Technologies With Different Hydrogen Carriers

Decarbonization Webinar #5

10 a.m.–11:30 a.m. • Thursday 26 October 2023

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Euan Evenson (Euan.Evenson@linde.com)
Felix Firsbach (felix.firsbach@bse-kehl.de)

Summary of webinar

Efficient use of chemical energy via burners is vital for steelmaking of the future. Relative to air-based combustion, oxy-fuel has been shown to offer the potential for increased thermal efficiency and decreased emissions. However, in order to achieve mid- and long-term decarbonization targets, low-carbon fuels will need to replace fossil sources. Green hydrogen (H2) and green ammonia (NH3) are two potential low-carbon fuels that are being considered to enable this transition. This webinar will provide an overview of the fundamentals as well as practical steelmaking experience in the combustion of hydrogen and ammonia.


David Muren <david.muren@linde.com>

Fundamentals of Hydrogen Oxy-Fuel Combustion With Demonstration in Steel Reheating


David Muren is the director of R&D for Metals and Combustion EMEA with Linde Technology. He has had experience in various operational and managerial positions in development and commercialization of industrial gas technology with Linde over more than 25 years. His field of expertise is oxy-fuel combustion and lately with a focus on hydrogen as fuel. He holds two patents related to combustion and industrial gas technology and a M.Sc. in metallurgy from the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm.


Converting industrial heating processes, such as steel reheating, from natural gas to hydrogen requires consideration of aspects of both differences in physical properties such as density and viscosity as well as those of combustion such as ignition energy and flammability. It stands to reason that for oxy-fuel combustion, where reactant and product concentrations are higher, the effect of such differences would be more pronounced. To investigate the impact of such conversion on burners, combustion control equipment as well as on the heating process and heated materials, Linde has conducted significant hydrogen oxy-fuel combustion tests to simulate industrial processes over the last five years. This presentation will share some of learnings and outcome of this (ongoing) work.

Anders Lugnet <anders.lugnet@ovako.com>

Experiences in Implementing a Green Hydrogen Oxy-Fuel Steel Reheating Process


Anders Lugnet is group technical specialist responsible for energy and furnace technology at Ovako. He has more than 29 years’ experience in industrial heating process optimization with a specialization on steel reheating furnaces, from mechanical design, project management, R&D, to best practices as an end user. He has served in roles from mechanical designer and project manager in a furnace engineering company to process development in steel reheating and burner and combustion process research and development. Since 2012 he has been responsible for energy and furnace technology and has a coordination role in implementing the world’s first industrial-scale hydrogen oxy-fuel steel reheating for permanent operation at Ovako in Hofors.


It is very popular to talk about hydrogen to decarbonize the steel industry. However, very few have done full-scale trials in their production and to find someone who actually uses hydrogen at scale in production is almost impossible. Ovako, together with Linde, made lab trials in 2019 followed by full-scale trials in early 2020. Since then, Ovako has worked hard to find funding, get permits and actually build Europe’s largest electrolyzer to replace liquefied petroleum gas with hydrogen in the Hofors rolling mill. The plant will be up and running in September 2023 and the presentation will explain the path from idea to full operation and its impact on operations in the rolling mill at the Hofors site. Ovako will be the first steel company in the world to use fossil-free hydrogen and oxygen to reheat steel prior to rolling.

Clint Bedick <Clinton.Bedick@netl.doe.gov>

Ammonia as a Hydrogen Carrier — Combustion Considerations


Clint Bedick is a research engineer at the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in Pittsburgh, Pa., USA. He works in the Energy Conversion Engineering directorate within the Research and Innovation Center. He earned a Ph.D. from West Virginia University in 2009 and has worked at NETL since then, where he performed research involving oxy-fuel combustion, turbulent flames, direct power extraction and pressure gain combustion. A cross-cutting interest in his work is advanced diagnostics. Currently, Bedick is leading an effort at NETL to investigate the use of ammonia as a carbon-free fuel in gas turbine engines and industrial heating applications.


Ammonia represents an attractive hydrogen carrier due to favorable storage and transport properties and a well-established industry. While re-conversion to hydrogen at the point of use is a potential pathway, direct utilization of ammonia in combustion systems may be preferable. However, ammonia combustion presents a number of technical challenges which must be overcome. Principally, this includes low flammability and a propensity for high nitrogen oxide emissions – driven by the fuel-bound nitrogen contained in ammonia. Currently, there is ongoing R&D both within the United States and worldwide to overcome these challenges.

The use of rich-quench-lean strategies have proven effective at reducing NOx emissions, promoting in-situ cracking of ammonia to hydrogen and limiting availability of radicals which promote NOx formation pathways. Within the ammonia combustion research community, a number of major needs still exist, including validation of chemical kinetic mechanisms, development of practical combustor configurations, and demonstration at process-relevant conditions and scales.