Table of Contents

    • 66

    • Low-Carbon High-Toughness Steel for Tank Car Applications

      A low-carbon steel chemistry was designed within the current stipulated compositional limits of TC 128 Gr B steel to improve toughness and puncture resistance of railroad tank car steels. Substitutional strengthening, changes of microstructure from a predominantly ferrite-pearlite to ferrite-bainite, and microstructural refining with Nb additions compensated for the anticipated loss in strength due to the reduction of carbon. Mechanical properties of plates rolled to various final thickness were evaluated in normalized and post-weld heat treatment conditions.

    • 74

    • Use of Different Lime-Based Products to Promote Agglomeration of Biocharcoal for EAF Injection Through Extrusion and Tableting Processes

      The electric arc furnace (EAF) is the most common way to produce steel from steel scrap feedstocks and it is intrinsically low-carbon compared with the integrated blast furnace-basic oxygen furnace route. To reach global CO2 emission reduction goals, it will be necessary to substitute fossil charge and injection carbon used in EAF steelmaking with alternative carbon sources such as biocharcoal. The focus here is on reducing fossil CO2 emissions from the metallurgical processes and to make the use of char standard practice. This study focuses on producing a dense biocharcoal agglomerate, using tableting and vacuum stiff extrusion with different lime-based products, which can be injected into the EAF to promote slag foaming, with limited dispersion to the offgas, and with maximum penetration and reaction inside the slag layer.

    • 82

    • Development of Non-Linear Equations for Predicting Electrical Conductivity in Silicates

      Electrical conductivity is extremely important for the production of steel by electric arc furnaces as it interferes with productivity. Data were analyzed through a database for the non-linear modeling of electrical conductivity as a function of chemical composition and temperature with statistical evaluations of sensitivity analysis, mean, and standard deviation of the error between the predictions and the database.

    • 88

    • Hazard Recognition, Risk Perceptions and Safety Climate Among Steel Manufacturing Workers

      Risk perception influences workers’ behaviors. This study assessed the association between hazard recognition, risk perception and safety climate among steel manufacturing workers. The survey instrument measured steelworkers’ perceptions regarding their safety climate, risk perception and hazard recognition. Participants were from a large steel manufacturing organization in the northeastern United States. Study results showed that open moving parts and crane movement were the most identified safety-related hazards, while noise and heat stress were the most identified health-related hazards. However, several participants reported that no hazards were present in some of the scenarios evaluated. Risk perception showed high scores in knowledge, avoidability and controllability while dread and vulnerability scores were low. Safety climate scores were positive and moderately correlated with several risk perception dimensions. Findings can be used to improve practices regarding risk perception and hazard recognition.